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1 year ago

Complicating this assumption are the other

Economic risk is mainly related to the risk that reducing the amount of fertilizers could result in yield loss and therefore profit reduction. Therefore, the over application of fertilizers can be perceived by farmers as a risk reducing activity, in other words an insurance mechanism to guarantee at least average yield (SriRamaratnam et al., 1987, Babcock, 1992, Yang et al., 2012 and Stuart et al., 2014). Environmental risk should have the opposite effect, i.e.

1 year ago

The Condamine River catchment here referred to as the

Early work proposed that stream recharge was the TRC 051384 source of alluvial groundwater, although more recent investigations disagree that stream recharge is significant; in any case, recharge is not well understood and diffuse recharge and discharge from surrounding basalt aquifers require further clarification (Lane, 1979, Huxley, 1982, Kelly and Merrick, 2007, KCB (Klohn Crippen Berger), 2011, Barnett and Muller, 2012 and Dafny and Silburn, 2013). Dafny and Silburn (2013) provide a comprehensive overview of work to date on the alluvial hydraulics. Since the 1960s, thousands of wells have been drilled into the alluvium and water extraction supports large-scale agriculture in the catchment, primarily for the irrigation of cotton and grain crops. Long-term over-extraction led to a nerves decline in the volume of water present in the aquifer, although the net extraction rate has been significantly reduced in the last decade through improved water resource management policies (Cox et al., 2013 and Dafny and Silburn, 2013).

1 year ago

Additionally XRD patterns show only a very broad peak

(%) = (mol ?-caprolactam + mol cyclohexanone)/mol initial cyclohexanone oxime × 100.cSel. CPL (%) = mol ?-caprolactam/(mol ?-caprolactam + mol cyclohexanone) × 100.dTON: ?-caprolactam (mol) produced on per molar acid site.eReaction conditions: cyclohexanone oxime (1 mmol), benzonitrile (4 mL), catalyst (0.23 mmol H+), 130 °C, 6 h.Full-size tableTable optionsView in workspaceDownload as CSV

1 year ago

According to reference the modification of

The suppression of the photocatalytic activity was assigned to the low reducing power of the photogenerated electrons and the covering of the TiO2 nanoparticles with inactive silica shells. The formation of TiOSi bonding through condensation reactions between hydroxyl groups from TiO2 surface and silanol groups from the silane compounds results in creation of coating around the TiO2 nanoparticles which suppresses the photocatalytic activity of composite nanoparticles in comparison with bare TiO2[33].

1 year ago

HoZn compound Magnetocaloric effect Critical exponent

2. Experimental details
2.1. Fabrication of CZTS powders by ball milling
Commercially available binary-alloy powders of copper sulfide (Cu2S), zinc sulfide (ZnS) and tin sulfide (SnS2) were weighted and mixed in atomic ratio of Cu:Zn:Sn:S = 2:1:1:4, corresponding to the stoichiometry of Cu2ZnSnS4. The mixed powders and stainless steel balls were loaded in Altiratinib stainless steel vial, which was filled with argon in a glove box. Ball-to-powder weight ratio was maintained at 5:1. In order to decrease the agglomeration of milled powders, absolute ethanol used as dispersant was filled into the vial up to submerge the powder mixtures and milling balls. The mixed powder was milled in a high-energy ball mill for 10–25 h, and then collected by evaporating ethanol under vacuum at 60 °C.
2.2. Preparation of CZTSSe film
2.3. Fabrication of device
CZTSSe solar cell devices with traditional structure i.e. SLG/Mo/CZTSSe/CdS/i-ZnO/indium-tin-oxide (ITO)/Al grid, were prepared. The CdS buffer layer (∼50 nm) was deposited by chemical bath deposition, as shown in Ref. [27], and then, i-ZnO (∼70 nm) and ITO (∼250 nm) were sputtered on top of CdS followed by thermal evaporation of Al grid electrode (2 μm) on top of ITO layer. Finally, the whole device was mechanically scribed into 4 small cells with the active area of about 0.39 cm2.

1 year ago

Conclusions The following is the supplementary data related to this

Although the spatial distribution of heavier PAHs is similar to that of ∑16PAHs (Fig. 5), lighter PAHs (2- to 3-ring PAHs) have some special characteristics. Fig. 5a shows that many isolated areas have high concentrations of 2-ring PAHs. These areas were more widely distributed than those with heavier PAHs and their concentrations were lower. This distribution of 2-ring PAHs is because the melting and boiling points of Nap are the lowest among the 16 PAH congeners, which easily leads to (S)-Crizotinib from the soil environment, and the lighter weight PAHs are also vulnerable to long-range atmospheric migration. In addition, more than half of the mutualism total PAHs from coal combustion and vehicle sources in urban soils generate heavier PAHs (above 3-ring PAHs). These characteristics can account for the lower concentrations of 2-ring PAHs and the low coincidence of spatial distributions between total PAHs and heavier PAHs (4–6 ring PAHs). The most isolated area was located in the northeastern suburban area. Compared with urban and rural soils, the greater contribution of oil sources from the nearby petrochemical enterprise may affect its spatial distribution.

1 year ago

Nanowires have attracted much attention as

Nanowires have attracted much attention as materials for various applications, including high sensitivity sensors, and electronic and optical devices, because of their unique properties arising from their characteristic morphology [1], [2] and [3]. The vapor–liquid–solid (VLS) method is widely used to fabricate nanowires [4]. VLS growth is based on the supersaturation of the reaction AZD2932 from eutectic droplets of the catalyst and reaction species. The droplets are formed by the interaction between the catalyst and reaction species. Many studies have explored the complicated VLS growth mechanism, with partial success [5], [6], [7] and [8], and there are still aspects of the mechanism that are open to debate. Because VLS growth is a series of phase transitions in a tiny reaction space, its non-equilibrium state and shape factor should be taken into consideration. In particular, there are several definitions of the chemical potential, which is the driving force of the nanowire growth. In excretory system work, we explain the thermodynamics and kinetics of the reaction mechanism by investigating the phase transition driving force in the phase diagram of the catalyst and reaction species.

1 year ago

Spatial and temporal patterns of soil

According to Mitasova et al. (2013), the amount of erosion and sediment transport varies between two limiting cases: the detachment capacity limited case and the sediment transport capacity limited case. When the transport capacity of overland flow exceeds its detachment capacity, the amount of erosion and sediment transport is detachment capacity limited, i.e. no deposition occurs. Assuming that the critical shear stress is negligible (Mitasova et al., 2013), erosion will be equal to the detachment capacity, which is the starting point leading to L189 that is the basis for the well-known erosion model USLE and its revised version RUSLE. The RUSLE3D is a revision and update of the widely used USLE and RUSLE, and it is suitable for complex terrain and GIS-based soil erosion modelling. It has a number of improvements for its application at the watershed scale, in contrast to the USLE designed for agricultural fields (Garcia Rodriguez and Gimenez Suarez, 2012). The RUSLE3D uses the same factorial approach employed by the USLE and RUSLE, but different equations to obtain the same parameters:equation(2)A=R⋅K⋅LS⋅C⋅PA=R⋅K⋅LS⋅C⋅PwhereAis the computed annual soil loss per unit area (Mg ha− 1 year− 1);Ris the rainfall–runoff erosivity factor (MJ mm ha− 1 h− 1 year− 1);Kis the soil erodibility factor (Mg h MJ− 1 mm− 1);LSis the topographic factor (dimensionless);Cis the cover and management factor (dimensionless); andPis the support practice factor (dimensionless).

1 year ago

In addition to the direct erosion effect the

Most of the hillslopes of the park are covered by forests mainly formed of P. canariensis, a Canary palaeoendemic AG-1478 that grows in well preserved forests on this island ( Arévalo and Fernández-Palacios, 2009). The forests extend up to 1800 m asl., and sometimes include willows (Salix canariensis) at the edges of ravines. Willows are generally related to the river bed and develop short-lived trunks that can be translocated and dragged with flood events ( Fig. 3). In contrast, pines are able to survive low-to-moderate damage, producing characteristic growth patterns that allow tree ring dating of such disturbances. P. canariensis has unique characteristics among pines that are generally linked to the volcanic environments where it currently lives ( Navascués et al., 2006). These include its colossal size, thick bark, resprouting ability, a characteristic heartwood, powerful taproot and high longevity ( Climent et al., 2004, Esteban et al., 2005 and Genova and Santana, 2006). These life-history traits make this species appropriate for tree ring studies to reconstruct geomorphic events by using dendrogeomorphological evidence ( Díez-Herrero et al., 2013b).

1 year ago

In a previous study with black capped chickadees experimentally manipulating

To further examine whether AM 404 could use acoustic information in only one note, in the absence of information from the other note, we presented birds with fee and bee notes individually. Birds rewarded for responding to male songs during discrimination training, responded the most to male fee notes and the least to female fee notes, while responses to both male and female bee notes was intermediate. This suggests that there was sufficient information in the fee notes for birds to identify sex, which is in line with our previous bioacoustic analyses (Hahn, Krysler et al., 2013). There are two possibilities for why birds responded equally to male and female bee notes: (1) there is no acoustic difference between male and female bee notes (i.e. bee notes contain no sex information), or (2) there are acoustic differences, but birds were not attending to these features when discriminating between male and female songs. Results from birds rewarded for responding to female songs provide evidence for the latter explanation. Birds in this discrimination group responded the most to female fee notes and female bee notes and responded the least to male fee notes, while responses to male bee notes were at intermediate levels. Birds responded more to both female notes presented singly compared to male fee notes, suggesting that there are acoustic features within bee notes that do in fact contain sex cues (Fig. 6); however, because birds in this group did not respond differentially between male and female bee notes, it suggests that either there are less salient acoustic differences in bee notes compared to fee notes, or that the birds relied less on information in bee notes than in fee notes when discriminating.